In order to confirm the diagnosis of “diabetes”, the patient must identify hyperglycemia – a pathological condition in which the content of glucose is higher than normal. Usually, this is done by examining blood sugar.
The patient needs to give out 3 blood tests:
on the hungry stomach;
during the day;
during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
The analysis of the hungry stomach is done after 8-14 hours of complete reflux from food and drinks (except for drinking water). Normally, sugar levels should be 3.3 to 5.5 mm / l in capillary blood and up to 6.1 mm / l in venous plasma.
Glucose during the day – any random measurement of blood sugar. In a healthy person, glycemia never exceeds 11.1 mm / l.
Oral glucose tolerance test (“sugar curve”) – a test with a load: the reception of sweet water. The norm is sugar up to 5.5 mm / l (capillary blood) before loading and up to 7.8 mm / l in 2 hours after.
Also, in order to determine the presence of pathology, an analysis can be made on glycated hemoglobin. This study provides an average blood sugar level over the past 2 or 3 months.
For daily sugar control, a device called “glucometer” is used. With it, patients with type 1 diabetes make measurements before each injection of insulin, and second-degree diabetics – check sugar at least 3 times a day.